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Vitamin D status modulates innate immune responses and metabolomic profiles following acute prolonged cycling.

Jones, Arwel W, Mironas, Adrian, Mur, Luis A J, Beckmann, Manfred, Thatcher, Rhys, Davison, Glen (2023) Vitamin D status modulates innate immune responses and metabolomic profiles following acute prolonged cycling. European journal of nutrition, 62 (7). pp. 2977-2990. ISSN 1436-6215. (doi:10.1007/s00394-023-03181-1) (KAR id:102289)


The influence of vitamin D status on exercise-induced immune dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status (circulating 25(OH)D) on innate immune responses and metabolomic profiles to prolonged exercise. Twenty three healthy, recreationally active males (age 25 ± 7 years; maximal oxygen uptake [[Formula: see text]max] 56 ± 9 mL·kg ·min ), classified as being deficient (n = 7) or non-deficient n = 16) according to plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D, completed 2.5 h of cycling at 15% Δ (~ 55-60% [Formula: see text]max). Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Participants with deficient plasma 25(OH)D on average had lower total lymphocyte count (mean difference [95% confidence interval], 0.5 cells × 10 L [0.1, 0.9]), p = 0.013) and greater neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (1.3 cells × 10 L, [0.1, 2.5], p = 0.033). The deficient group experienced reductions from pre-exercise to 1 h post-exercise (- 43% [- 70, - 15], p = 0.003) in bacterial stimulated elastase in blood neutrophils compared to non-deficient participants (1% [- 20, 21], p = 1.000) Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolomic profiles showed a clear separation of participants according to vitamin D status. Prominent sources of variation between groups were purine/pyrimidine catabolites, inflammatory markers (linoleic acid pathway), lactate and tyrosine/adrenaline. These findings provide evidence of the influence of vitamin D status on exercise-induced changes in parameters of innate immune defence and metabolomic signatures such as markers of inflammation and metabolic stress. [Abstract copyright: © 2023. The Author(s).]

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1007/s00394-023-03181-1
Uncontrolled keywords: Neutrophil, Stress, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Inflammation, Metabolomics, Immunity
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation. Leisure > Sports sciences
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Sport and Exercise Sciences
Funders: University of Kent (
Aberystwyth University (
SWORD Depositor: JISC Publications Router
Depositing User: JISC Publications Router
Date Deposited: 02 Aug 2023 15:02 UTC
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2024 11:07 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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