Skip to main content
Kent Academic Repository

Clinical Challenges in the Management of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumours

Saani, Iqra, Raj, Nitish, Sood, Raja, Ansari, Shahbaz, Mandviwala, Haider Abbas, Sanchez, Elisabet, Boussios, Stergios (2023) Clinical Challenges in the Management of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumours. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20 (12). Article Number 6089. ISSN 1660-4601. (doi:10.3390/ijerph20126089) (KAR id:101957)


Nonepithelial ovarian cancers (NEOC) are a group of rare malignancies, including germ cell tumours (GCT) and sex cord-stromal tumours (SCST), along with small-cell carcinomas and sarcomas. GCTs represent 2-5% of ovarian cancers, with a yearly incidence of 4:100,000, and they usually affect young women and adolescents. Precursory germ cells of the ovary form the basis of GCT. They are histologically classified into primitive GCT, teratomas, and monodermal and somatic-type tumours associated with dermoid cysts. A primitive GCT can be either a yolk sac tumour (YST), dysgerminoma, or mixed germ cell neoplasm. Teratomas are either mature (benign) or immature (malignant). Given that malignant GCTs occur rarely compared to epithelial ovarian tumours (EOC), greater focus is required in their diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and molecular biology, along with the management and therapeutic challenges.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.3390/ijerph20126089
Uncontrolled keywords: Treatment, Signalling Pathways, Genome Profiling, Yolk Sac Tumours, Ovarian Germ Cell Tumours, Dysgerminomas, Humans, Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal, Teratoma, Ovarian Neoplasms, Adolescent, Female
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
Funders: University of Kent (
SWORD Depositor: JISC Publications Router
Depositing User: JISC Publications Router
Date Deposited: 11 Jul 2023 14:42 UTC
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2024 12:58 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

  • Depositors only (login required):

Total unique views for this document in KAR since July 2020. For more details click on the image.