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Risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in asymptomatic female Brugada syndrome patients: A literature review

Leung, Keith Sai Kit, Radford, Danny, Huang, Helen, Lakhani, Ishan, Li, Christien Ka Hou, Hothi, Sandeep Singh, Wai, Abraham Ka Chung, Liu, Tong, Tse, Gary, Lee, Sharen and others. (2023) Risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in asymptomatic female Brugada syndrome patients: A literature review. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 28 (2). ISSN 1082-720X. E-ISSN 1542-474X. (doi:10.1111/anec.13030) (KAR id:100627)


Background and Objectives: Risk stratification in Brugada syndrome remains a difficult problem. Given the male predominance of this disease and their elevated risks of arrhythmic events, affected females have received less attention. It is widely known that symptomatic patients are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) than asymptomatic patients, while this might be true in the male population; recent studies have shown that this association might not be significant in females. Over the past few decades, numerous markers involving clinical symptoms, electrocardiographic (ECG) indices, and genetic tests have been explored, with several risk-scoring models developed so far. The objective of this study is to review the current evidence of clinical and ECG markers as well as risk scores on asymptomatic females with Brugada syndrome.

Findings: Gender differences in ECG markers, the yield of genetic findings, and the applicability of risk scores are highlighted.

Conclusions: Various clinical, electrocardiographic, and genetic risk factors are available for assessing SCD risk amongst asymptomatic female BrS patients. However, due to the significant gender discrepancy in BrS, the SCD risk amongst females is often underestimated, and there is a lack of research on female-specific risk factors and multiparametric risk scores. Therefore, multinational studies pooling female BrS patients are needed for the development of a gender-specific risk stratification approach amongst asymptomatic BrS patients.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1111/anec.13030
Uncontrolled keywords: Physiology (medical), Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, General Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Divisions > Division of Natural Sciences > Kent and Medway Medical School
Funders: University of Kent (
SWORD Depositor: JISC Publications Router
Depositing User: JISC Publications Router
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2023 13:48 UTC
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2023 08:08 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

University of Kent Author Information

Radford, Danny.

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Tse, Gary.

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