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Blockchain and the carbon credit ecosystem: sustainable management of the supply chain

Basu, Preetam, Deb, Palash, Singh, Akhilesh (2023) Blockchain and the carbon credit ecosystem: sustainable management of the supply chain. Journal of Business Strategy, . ISSN 0275-6668. (doi:10.1108/JBS-09-2022-0157) (KAR id:100231)



Businesses must now track the complicated supply chains of their products, which involve different manufacturers and suppliers. However, because supply chains are scattered across multiple countries and involve many institutions, it becomes an overwhelming practical challenge to ensure transparent recording and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. The myriad issues necessitate a technological solution that will improve supply chain transparency, assist in managing carbon assets and allow all parties to obtain credible information on carbon output. As a potential solution, this study offers a unique architecture that effectively combines “blockchain technology” with the carbon supply chain of a multi-institution business network.


This research and proposed framework are based on publicly available reports on carbon emissions tracking, sustainability, carbon trade and emerging blockchain technologies. The authors also interviewed industry experts to obtain their input and feedback.


Businesses must support the pledges made by their respective governments towards meeting the objectives of the Paris Agreement. Although the emissions trading system encourages businesses to move in this direction, it can be challenging for them to efficiently manage their carbon assets owing to issues such as lack of standardised methods for tracking emissions across suppliers and manufacturers and the fragmentation of carbon markets. The carbon supply chain can maintain a record of the chronological flow of carbon emissions and eventually of all carbon assets by integrating a centralised ledger system based on blockchain technology.


Global warming, climate change and carbon emissions are among humanity’s pressing problems today. To achieve net zero emissions by the middle of the 21st century, emissions must be drastically reduced. Global supply chains have a crucial role to play in this context. This article provides a blockchain-based technology framework for carbon emissions visibility and tracking. The authors believe such a platform will provide critical visibility and tracking support to globally dispersed supply chains, moving a step closer towards carbon emissions control and net zero operations.

Item Type: Article
DOI/Identification number: 10.1108/JBS-09-2022-0157
Additional information: This author accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact
Uncontrolled keywords: sustainability; supply chain management; blockchain technology
Subjects: H Social Sciences
Divisions: Divisions > Kent Business School - Division > Department of Analytics, Operations and Systems
Funders: University of Kent (
Depositing User: Preetam Basu
Date Deposited: 27 Feb 2023 10:39 UTC
Last Modified: 28 Feb 2023 10:05 UTC
Resource URI: (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)

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