Perfectionism and achievement goals in athletes: Relations with approach and avoidance orientations in mastery and performance goals

Stoeber, Joachim and Stoll, Oliver and Pescheck, Eva and Otto, Kathleen (2008) Perfectionism and achievement goals in athletes: Relations with approach and avoidance orientations in mastery and performance goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (2). pp. 102-121. ISSN 1469-0292 . (Full text available)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.02.002...

Abstract

Objectives: Challenging views that perfectionism is a maladaptive factor in sport and that it is related to a preoccupation with performance goals and a neglect of mastery goals, the present article argues that perfectionism in athletes is not generally maladaptive, but shows differential relationships with mastery and performance goals depending on which facets of perfectionism are regarded. Method: Going beyond the dichotomous achievement goal framework, two studies with N = 204 high school athletes and N = 147 university student are presented investigating how two facets of perfectionism-striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection [Stoeber, J., Otto, K., Pescheck, E., Becker, C., & Stoll, O. (2007). Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 959-969.]-relate to athletes' achievement goals. Design: Study 1 employed a cross-sectional correlational design, Study 2 a longitudinal correlational design. Results: Following the trichotomous achievement goal framework, Study 1 found striving for perfection to be positively related to mastery and performance-approach goals, whereas negative reactions to imperfection were positively related to performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals and inversely to mastery goals. Following the 2 x 2 framework, Study 2 found striving for perfection to be positively related to mastery-approach and performance-approach goals whereas negative reactions to imperfection were positively related to mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance avoidance goals. Moreover, negative reactions to imperfection predicted residual increases in mastery avoidance goals over 3 months. Conclusions: It is concluded that striving for perfection in athletes is associated with an adaptive pattern of achievement goals whereas negative reactions to imperfection are associated with a maladaptive pattern. Thus, striving for perfection in sport may be adaptive in athletes who do not experience strong negative reactions when performance is less than perfect.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled keywords: perfectionism; sport; achievement motivation; goal orientations; performance; mastery; approach; avoidance
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Divisions: Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Psychology
Depositing User: Joachim Stoeber
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2009 12:18
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2014 14:35
Resource URI: http://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/4487 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)
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