Hewstone, M. and Crisp, R.J. and Contarello, A. and Voci, A. and Conway, L. and Marletta, G. and Willis, H. (2006) Tokens in the tower: Perceptual processes and interaction dynamics in academic settings with `Skewed', `Tilted' and `Balanced' sex ratios. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9 (4). pp. 509-532. ISSN 1368-4302.
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We tested Kanter's (1977a, 1977b) theory concerning the effects of group proportions (sex ratios) on visibility, polarization and assimilation, using natural groups of women and men in academia. Study 1 compared male-skewed and male-tilted settings and found evidence of greater polarization by minority women than majority men. The only effect of group proportions occurred for perceived dispersion as a measure of assimilation; replicating Brown and Smith (1989), men showed an out-group (OH), and women an in-group (IH), homogeneity effect, and both effects were accentuated in the skewed setting. Study 2 extended the research to include male-skewed, male-tilted, balanced and female-tilted sex ratios. Men's OH effect declined as relative out-group size increased, and women's IH effect declined as relative in-group size increased. There was also a linear decrease in relative perceived in-group impact and status as actual relative in-group size declined. We discuss our findings with respect to the validity of Kanter's theory, gender and group size as moderators of perceived variability, and methodological issues in studying diversity.
|Uncontrolled keywords:||gender; group size; in-group homogeneity; out-group homogeneity; perceived variability; sex ratios; tokenism|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion|
|Divisions:||Faculties > Social Sciences > School of Psychology > Social Psychology|
|Depositing User:||R.J. Crisp|
|Date Deposited:||04 Sep 2008 11:30|
|Last Modified:||14 Jan 2010 14:14|
|Resource URI:||http://kar.kent.ac.uk/id/eprint/4060 (The current URI for this page, for reference purposes)|
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